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Fourierism manifested itself "in the middle of the 19th century (where) literally hundreds of communes (phalansteries) were founded on fourierist principles in France, N. The UK government's Factory Act of 1833 attempted to reduce the hours adults and children worked in the textile industry.
A fifteen-hour working day was to start at 5.30 a.m. Children of nine to thirteen years could work no more than 9 hours, and workers of a younger age were prohibited.
William Godwin's anarchism exerted an ideological influence on some of this, but more so the socialism of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier.
After success of his British venture, Owen himself established a cooperative community within the United States at New Harmony, Indiana during 1825.
In this period socialism emerged from a diverse array of doctrines and social experiments associated primarily with British and French thinkers—especially Robert Owen, Charles Fourier (1772–1837), Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865), Louis Blanc (1811–1882) and Saint-Simon (1760–1825).
In the last third of the 19th century, social democratic parties arose in Europe, drawing mainly from Marxism.
The Australian Labor Party was the world's first elected socialist party when it formed government in the Colony of Queensland for a week in 1899.
Leaving England for the United States, Robert Owen and his sons began an experiment with a socialist community in New Harmony, Indiana in 1825.
Advertisements announced the experiment for the cooperative colony, bringing various people to attempt an 8-hour work-day of which Owen was a proponent.
By 1847, according to Frederick Engels "Socialism" was "respectable" on the continent of Europe while "Communism" was the opposite as the Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered Socialists, while working-class movements which "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" termed themselves "Communists".