Developing and validating multiple choice test items pdf harshad and sriti dating
As they grow in importance and use, testing programs increasingly supplement the use of selected-response (multiple-choice) items with constructed-response formats. As a result, a new item writing book is needed, one that provides comprehensive coverage of both types of items and of the validity theory underlying them.
This book is an outgrowth of the author’s previous book, Developing and Validating Multiple-Choice Test Items, 3e (Haladyna, 2004).
If a significant learning outcome requires negative phrasing, such as identification of dangerous laboratory or clinical practices, the negative element should be emphasized with italics or capitalization. A question stem is preferable because it allows the student to focus on answering the question rather than holding the partial sentence in working memory and sequentially completing it with each alternative (Statman 1988).
Focus on Validity – Validity, the most important consideration in testing, is stressed throughout and is based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, currently under revision by AERA, APA, and NCMEIllustrative Examples – The book presents various selected and constructed response formats and uses many examples to illustrate correct and incorrect ways of writing items.
Strategies for training item writers and developing large numbers of items using algorithms and other item-generating methods are also presented.
Validity is the degree to which a test measures the learning outcomes it purports to measure.
Because students can typically answer a multiple choice item much more quickly than an essay question, tests based on multiple choice items can typically focus on a relatively broad representation of course material, thus increasing the validity of the assessment.
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