Dating neutron lv
With the unresolved issues between point sensors and remote sensing, and critical spatiotemporal gaps from remote sensing observations, production agriculture has typically relied on direct insertion point based SWC monitoring technologies to aid in decision-making [15, 16], albeit with recent acceptance of indirect sensors .A key weakness of direct insertion point sensors in production agriculture is often logistical, as routine management practices of planting, soil cultivation, and harvest make installation and maintenance of point sensor networks costly and time consuming to continuously manage.The study site, Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) , is a cooperation project between the Federal Agency for Water Management (BAW Petzenkirchen) and the Technical University Vienna (TU Vienna), is located in Petzenkirchen, about 100 km west of Vienna and receives an annual average 823 mm of rainfall mostly between April and September. The research station is located in an undulating agricultural landscape, characterized by Cambisols (56%), Planosols (21%), Anthrosols (17%), Gleysols (6%), and Histosols (Figure 1: (a) Location of the Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) (48.1547°N, 15.1483°E) within a mixed agricultural land use area in northeast Austria.(b) CRNP located at study site with weather station.We note that given the limited distribution of sensors and spatially varying SWC  that establishing a “true” landscape average SWC is challenging and a comparison against the CRNP should be framed within the expected uncertainty of the mean given the inherent limitations of “spatial representativeness” of averaging a few point sensors in an area.The principles and practice of measuring SWC with active source neutrons is well established in soil science and agricultural research [22, 23].The TDT sensors are later reinserted for continued monitoring but the full 2014 data were not available.
The ability of the CRNP to provide real-time and accurate landscape SWC measurements makes it an ideal method for establishing long-term monitoring sites in agricultural ecosystems to aid in agricultural water and nutrient management decisions at the small tract of land scale as well as aiding in management decisions at larger scales.In this work, we will explore the use of the indirect Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP)  for providing a landscape average SWC value in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes.The CRNP method was recently developed with its main applications in academic research through the establishment of national monitoring networks in the USA , Australia , UK, and South Africa, with probe installations mostly concentrated in natural ecosystems.However, routine agricultural production practices of soil cultivation, planting, and harvest make the operation and maintenance of direct contact point sensors for long-term monitoring challenging.In this work, we explore the use of the newly established Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP) and method to monitor landscape average SWC in a mixed agricultural land use system in northeast Austria.
Similarly, the effective penetration depth of the CRNP varies from ~15 cm in fully saturated soils (0.40 m).