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Federal and State agencies issued periodic warnings against lead use. The Rhodes book had two images of early American pots; A sgraffito plate by Georg Hubener of Bucks County, PA, c.1790, and a mass-produced molded stoneware pitcher in the form of a waterfall or whatever by the American Pottery Company of Trenton, NJ, c.1840. There were (are) plenty of books about all sorts of pottery types. The range of early American (and European) pottery expression hit me only after some intense overseas time induced reflection on my own background. Tags:american pottery, American Pottery Company, Bernard leach, blue and white, Daniel Rhodes, Georg Hübener Posted in Bernard leach, blue and white, Bucks County, China, Daniel Rhodes, Early American Pottery, Earthenware, Georg Hubener, Imperial Wares, North America, pottery through the ages, salt firing, Song Dynasty, Stoneware | 3 Comments » What’s in a name? As a child, his parents referred to him as ‘Harvey.’ When his sister Clarissa moved to Missouri Territory in the 1830’s, she addressed her letters to ‘Harvey.’ When he tried to go west like Clarissa and so many others, his mom wrote to him as ‘Harvey.’ (He only got as far as Granville, NY before eventually returning to Goshen.) Back home his brother John called him ‘Harvey.’ Surviving letters in Old Sturbridge Village’s research library indicate pretty much his whole family called him ‘Harvey’ his entire life. ’ Readings: Early New England Potters and Their Wares. Especially in ports and towns along major waterways. Every spark from barely controllable bottle kilns was a disaster waiting to happen – not to mention the health hazards of lead glazed fumes spewing across densely populated areas. In 1743, Oglethorpe gave Duché a trip to England to lobby potential backers there. But his visit helped spark a chain of events which led to the successful replication of porcelain by other quest devotees. How often have I seen it obliged to undergo the Indignities of a dirty Wench; to have melting Candles dropt on its naked Sides, and sometimes in its Mouth, to risque being broken into a thousand Pieces, for Actions which itself was not guilty of! For that alone William Fives and his cohorts deserve notice.
Furthermore, the status of German communities continued to grow.The best lead source came from sheets used to seal tea – tea chest lead – reduced to a white powder by soaking in vinegar. During the trip, one of the potters lamented how she was taught nothing in college about America’s pottery heritage. He asked Georgia’s board of trustees for money, a 15 year patent, and more money. Almost like a tacit agreement that he ‘come with the shop.’ He rented an apartment on Green Street with several fellow potters. William was Irish in the mid 19th century northeastern United States. Albany slip came into common use, sealing somewhat porous jugs and protecting their precious contents. Some potters stayed true to their old groundhog kilns but others needed more stacking space and more consistent firing. During Prohibition, revenue officers looking for bootleggers would see shops filled with jugs one day and empty the next. ” “I didn’t catch his name…” Cleater Meaders of White County, Georgia remembers “Most of the liquor ended up in Atlanta or Athens – university people got most of it.” After Prohibition, visitors from cities like Atlanta and Athens sought out rustic ceramic ‘tourist items.’ The stage was set for Jugtown and all that followed.But most potters went to dry goods merchants who sold imported lead as a paint ingredient. Most of the potters in the group, being of more or less the same generation, were taught that Asian porcelain was pottery’s culminating expression. A board member asked Duché to replicate the porcelain feat. William eventually married, bought a house and had children. In the words of genealogist Susan Hoffman, William Fives “led a very quiet life.” Normally, that would be commendable – though somewhat dull. The Irish were roundly despised even before a mid century deluge of ragged Irish immigrants broke on these shores. The Irish didn’t become ‘white’ until well after the Civil War. Meanwhile the young bootlegging drivers sped off to their own destiny. University of North Carolina Press/Chapel Hill, NC. It wasn’t until the early 19th century spread of canals and toll roads that shipping prices lowered enough for stoneware to blossom. In a May 27, 1738 trustee report by Georgia’s colonial secretary Colonel William Stevens, Duché proclaimed “something very curious, which may turn to good account for transporting, and he is making some tryal of the kinds of clay; a small tea-cup of which he showed me, when held against the light was very near transparent.” Duché next announced he “had found out the true manner of making porcelain.” This would make him the first English-speaking person to achieve the quest. Many potteries traded owners during the 19th century. One thing led to another and racing became a “sport.” They raced each other for small stakes. The whiskey those early daredevils drove around came in salt-fired stoneware jugs. Reconstruction efforts like the 1870’s Farm Alliance Program promoted corn production as a cash crop for whiskey distillation. But many others were just “whiskey heads” who breezed into shops, made a few bucks, blew it all on whiskey, and drifted off again.A common glaze recipe in the early US had about 10 parts lead to 3 parts loam or sand. A group of potters went to see a “Blue and White” ceramics exhibit at a major museum in a large city. Duché more likely had simply stumbled upon Cherokee “unaker” clay, an American kaolin. But William continued at this shop through a succession of owners. This scenario was officially sanctioned a few brief decades before, with far reaching consequences for everyone involved. The stoneware whiskey jug boom also impelled several important technical innovations.
As Germans fought to secure a place in the new order, they began proudly displaying their ‘German-ness’ for all to see through quilting, illuminated manuscripts, furniture, and other decorative arts.